The utilisation of pangolin in treating the various conditions identified was found to be guided by a number of factors suggesting a unique co-evolution between medical, social and ecological systems. In the present study, the scale was used for ejection of placenta in women after delivery but [3] reported that a whole female pangolin was required for the extrusion of placenta after parturition in women. The whole animal was employed to cure/wade off bad illness and sickness while [1] reported that the scale was utilised to cure skin diseases. Figure 1 The map of Nigeria and Ogun State showing study site. EWE ATI OGUN WA you are welcome to ewé ati ogun wa . Egbo Ayin, Egbo idi, Egbo ipeta, Epo Okuku, Epo Ira, Epo orira, Egbo Lawale, Akogun, Epo igi Banni, Sasagbaku, Alubosa Ayu, Alubosa funfun, Atawere Adayeba, kanhun bilala, Abere, Kananfuru, Kafura Pelebe ao ge gbogbore die die sinu roba ragolis nila ao bu omisi ao fisile bi wakati mefa ao ma mu die die ekan lojumo tabi aro ati ale 1987, 27-25. c he consumes everyday? With no record of successful captive breeding or domestication yet, especially in this part of the world, the only source of this animal is from populations in the wild that are already fast declining due to over-exploitation for medicinal uses [7]. Located in the Southwest zone of Nigeria with a total land area of 16,409.26 square kilometres, it is bounded on the West by the Benin Republic, on the South by Lagos State and the Atlantic Ocean, on the East by Ondo State, and on the North by Oyo and Osun States. Poaching animals for their medicinal values has brought many of the wild species closer to extinction and necessitated their listing in the red data book [14]. 2008, 6: 41-53. In Africa, reliance on wildlife-based medicine stems partly on the one hand from the high cost of conventional medicine and the inaccessibility of modern health care facilities. Sodeinde OA, Soewu DA: Pilot Study of the Traditional Medicine Trade in Nigeria. As regards the size, well above 97 percent claimed to have observed a continuous decline over time in the size of pangolins they use. The basis for traditional medicines and the primary ingredients used by the traditional healers are wild animal and plant species. The word gidigbo loosely translates to mean let’s fight. In a review, Mahawar and Jaroli (2008) [18] identified 109 animal species with 270 uses in traditional medicine in different parts of India, while Ferreira et al (2009) [19] in another study in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceara, Brazil, recorded 31 animal species distributed among 21 families. Ogun State is entirely in the tropics. 83. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. Soewu DA: Wild Animals in ethnozoological practices among the Yorubas of southwestern Nigeria and the implications for biodiversity conservation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Gidigbo: Yoruba Martial Arts (Part 1) Gidigbo: Yoruba Martial Arts Part 1 by Awo Falokun In traditional Yoruba the spiritual discipline of Ifa includes a martial art called either gidigbo, aki or akin. ogun: man steals month-old baby from sleeping mother october 8, 2019; ekiti: 59-year-old man caught on top of nine-year-old girl defiling her october 8, 2019 ... overdose of edible camphor “kafura pelebe’ is poisonous – research. On the overall, 40 practitioners utilised 64 whole pangolins (Figure 2), giving an average of 1.6 animals per tymp per month. The quantity of pangolin utilised by the respondents over a period of one month is shown in table 7. Ogun. Also, [7] documented that all pangolins traded for and utilised in traditional medicinal practices by the Ijebus in Nigeria came from populations in the wild. Scales were also used in preparation of medicine for safe parturition, increased productivity on the farm, wading off witches, protection and safety. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. All respondents opined that all the pangolins they utilised, notwithstanding the point of procurement, came ultimately from populations in the wild. African Journal of Agricultural Research. NO! An average of 1.6 pangolins were utilised per tymp per month. Thorax was used to treat convulsions, unconsciousness, menstrual pains and in preventing or wading off rain. Some situations required a combination of pangolin parts. Eighty percent of respondents were aged between 46 and 75 years, 5.0 percent were above 75 years of age, only 15 percent were 36-45 years old while none of them was younger than 36 years as shown in table 1. Journal of Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. More than 92% believed that pangolins' abundance is steadily decreasing. Some respondents however combined quoranic with western education. 1992, 19 (2): 125-134. Above 97% reported a continuous decline in the size of pangolin. 2005, World Health Organisation (WHO): Traditional Medicine. There is a need to educate the entire citizenry on the implications of a total loss of this specie as a result of over-exploitation for biodiversity conservation and health care delivery. Situations accommodated include those that can be treated by orthodox medicine as well as some that are out of range for orthodox medicine. Soewu, D.A., Adekanola, T.A. Obviously, continued depletion of medicinal wildlife resources not only embodies a challenge for conservation, but more importantly represents a serious threat to the health status of human population [4, 13]. agba eyonu epo obo kafura pelebe ori ao popo mumu ati fifi para nb:omo to ngbonan tabi nsunkun ti ako man nkan to nse lelo ao fi pa lara ao si fun die mu asi lelo filo si odo enian pataki odaju While the Ijebus used pangolin scale to prepare antidotes for sexual and food poisons, the Aworis in this study utilised whole internal organs of pangolins for such preparations. Ao re sinu omi Ao maa mu. Google Scholar, Lev E: Traditional Healing with Animal (Zootherapy); Medieval to Present-Day Levantine Practice. The Chinese used the scales for preparations to neutralise witchcraft and evil spirits and to cure sores [7]. Located in the Southwest zone of Nigeria with a total land area of 16,409.26 square kilometres, it is bounded on the West by the Benin Republic, on the South by Lagos State and the Atlantic Ocean, on the East by … 2007, [http://www.onlinenigeria.com/links/LinksReadPrint.asp?blurb=574], Costa Neto EM: Traditional use and sale of animals as medicines in Feira de Santana city, Bahia, Brazil. This requires that trade in this species must be regulated in order to avoid unsustainable utilisation of the species which may further worsen its conservation status. This indiscriminate use of wild animals, especially endangered species in all forms of traditional medicine is a cause of growing concern [11, 12]. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Odumosu, M. Agbara Nbe Ninu Ewe Ati Egbo. A few pieces of pangolin carcass were used in divination and charms for good luck, protection and safety. CAS  While the data in Soewu and Ayodele (2009) [7] dwelt primarily on the volume traded, the present study focused on the actual rate of utilisation as revealed by the traditional Yorubic medical practitioners. The Aworis utilised pangolin extensively in traditional medicinal practices. Alves RRN, Barbosa JAA, Santos SLDX, Souto WMS, Barboza RRD: Animal-based Remedies as Complementary Medicines in the Semi-arid Region of Northeastern Brazil. Incidence of contract hunting is slightly higher in this study with 42.5 percent of respondents involved than in [7] which recorded only 14 percent. EGBOGI JEDIJEDI (ogun jedijedi) egbo idi egbo ayin kafura pelebe. Iwaju Ogun Agbo ato. While advocating that the medicinal use of animals be considered together with other anthropogenic pressures, [14] observed that rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence of the expanded urbanisation, global warming and reduced natural habitat poses a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. However, some of the animals identified as possible substitutes for pangolin are worse off regarding their conservation status as indicated in the various listings. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2000, [http://www.wpro.who.int/health_topics/traditional_medicine], Marshall NT: Searching for a Cure: Conservation of Medicinal Wildlife Resources in East and Southern Africa. Twenty-four animal species used in 35 different medicinal purposes were documented in an ethnozoological study in Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary in India [10]. The demand created by traditional medicine has however been identified as one of the causes of the overexploitation of the wild population of numerous animal species. The bioactive ingredients in some parts of this animal were responsible for some of their uses. It is very important for conservation groups to create adequate awareness as regards the implications of depletion of natural resources (flora and fauna) having known medicinal values. As revealed in table 4 which depicts the source of the animal, 72.5 percent purchased pangolin from retail traders in the various markets, 25 percent bought from hunters while less than 3 percent cropped the animal directly from the wild. The resultant over-hunting has exposed several species, most especially the mammals to increased the risk. Correspondence to Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. Environmental Conservation. Kafura pelebe, Imi ojo, sugar onikoro, oyin ojuda, ao lopo, ao po lose funfun oni paali, ao wa tu turari bintu, tabi dandu Allah, tabi saso rebia odidi kansi ao fipo ose naa ao walo kunna daada, ao ko sinu ike funfun ao ma fiwe laraaro The study of chakra called iwaju in Ifa is I believe fundamental to our understanding of Ifa. As the market value of wildlife has escalated with increasing demand and decreasing supply, there has been a marked shift in hunting motives from primarily for subsistence to purely for trade purposes. Table 2 shows that sixty-five percent of respondents had spent 26 years or more on the healing practice, with mean duration in practice being 30.75 years (x = 30.75, n = 40). The study was conducted in Ifo, Ewekoro, Egbado South and Ado Odo/Ota Local Government areas in Ogun State, Nigeria (Figure 1) between December 2006 and March 2007. Gender distribution of respondents showed that 90% were males (table 1). Pangolin head was used in the treatment of mental illness, kleptomania and in preparing good luck charms. See How To Advertise. In previous single species studies, [24] reported that fat and egg of Podocnemis expansa were used to treat 16 different diseases while [7] reported the use of pangolin to treat 42 conditions amongst the Ijebus. Adeola MO: Importance of wild animals and their parts in the culture, religious festivals, and traditional medicine, of Nigeria. All rights reserved. Abere pupo ao pa pepe, alubosa ayu,kananfuru, kakandoro, kafura pelebe ao ki gbogbo re lagbo pelu omin ao ma yomu 6 Likes 1 Share Re: Alafia Logun Oro Itoju Topeye Ogun Ibile Todaju by kadunasouth ( m ): 11:10pm On Dec 20 , 2015 Located in the Southwest zone of Nigeria with a total land area of 16,409.26 square kilometres, it is bounded on the West by the Benin Republic, on the South by Lagos State and the Atlantic Ocean, on the East by Ondo State, and on the North by Oyo and Osun States. Article  1999, 18 (1): 35-40. 7-2, Jaroli DP, Mahawar MM, Vyas N: An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India. Whole animal, flesh (in parts) and the complete thorax of pangolin were each employed in the treatment of 4 different conditions. 6.AKIRA (Tiwon ba fe ki wa lorun lojiji tabi lati eyin ao bo siwaju onitohun tabi kabo si eyin ré) 7.ORUKA TI AFI YI NKAN PO 8.IFUPA AKOYA 9.AGADAGODO 10.EYONU TONI AGBA 11.SIGIDI ISORA 12.OGUN AYE TI NPASE EMI 13.IBANTE GBETUGBETU 14.ASO OGUN 2003, [http://www.worldhealthorganisation.com], Soewu DA, Ayodele IA: Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu pronvince, Ogun State, Nigeria. EGBOGI JEDIJEDI (OGUN JEDIJEDI) egbo idi egbo ayin kafura pelebe.Ao re sinu omiAo maa mu. Contract hunting is employed whenever there is an urgent need for the animal, whole or parts, but which is not readily available in nearby markets. DAS conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, review of literature and revision of the manuscript. Several authors have also recorded a wide variety of animals and their parts in sales for other parts of the world. egbo idi egbo ayin kafura pelebe. Gorilla is actually listed on schedules I and 1 of CITES and Nigerian Decree No 11 respectively. 1998. Ato Female priestess in ancestral reverence societies (Egúngún). Brautigam A, John H, Tamsin H, Jonathan H: Recent Information on the Status and Utilisation of African Pangolins. ... egbo idi egbo ayin kafura pelebe. It is also due on the other hand to the fact that traditional medicine is often deemed a more appropriate method of treatment [13]. Hon. Moreso, the magic, superstition and dogma that surrounded traditional medicinal preparations are giving way to an understanding of the real basis of their curative power and consequently their social acceptance [4, 13]. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. The scales were also used to wade off witches among the Aworis and this agrees with [25] which reported that the scales were thought to neutralise witchcraft and evil spirits. 2003, 107-118. 2006, [http://www.awf.org/content/wildlife/detail/pangolin]. It was observed that many animal species have been over-exploited as sources of medicines for the folk medicine trade [12]. Traditional African Medicine (TAM) is a holistic discipline involving extensive use of indigenous herbalism combined with some aspects of African spirituality [16]. OGUN STROKE Omin igbin topo Dada ewe taba tutu ao gbo iwon OMI taba ri ninu ewe yi ni iwon OMI igbin yi gbodo je pelu iwon oyun igan ao da papo sinu igo tabi ike kan leyin ojo KEJI idi mimun haaaa ise ni sa odaju bi iku iba eyin agba o There is no indication that the level of utilisation of medicinal wildlife resources for traditional medicine would diminish [13]. The World Health Organisation (WHO) stated that traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being [6, 7]. Forty traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners (tymps) selected through stratified random-sampling technique were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The authors would like to thank all the Yorubic traditional medical practitioners interviewed especially Awise Hakeem Osijinrin, Chief S. Ishola Soewu and Late Apena Segun Ogunlana for their co-operation. Background Kafura pelebe (camphor) {C10H16O} is a chemical substance used mostly amongst the Yoruba ethnic group in Western Nigeria to treat infantile colic during early childhood. Majority of wildlife used in traditional medicines is taken from the wild; hence demand by traditional medicine is a cause of over-exploitation of wild animals. Traditional Yorubic medicine among the Ijebus used pangolin scales to treat stomach ulcers, venereal diseases, stroke, mental illness, to wade off witchcraft and to prepare traditional antibiotics as also recorded in this study. Ten percent of respondents procured the animals by chance/on encounter, above 47% engaged in prepayment for pangolins; while about 43% claimed they contracted hunters or poachers for deliberate searches for the animals as shown in table 5. This study investigated the dynamics of the use of pangolin in trado-medicinal preparations amongst the Awori people. Durojaye A Soewu. Article  According to Alves et al (2011) [14], the use of animals for medicinal purposes is part of a body of traditional knowledge which is increasingly becoming more relevant to discussions on conservation biology, public health policies, sustainable management of natural resources, biological prospection and patents. The thorax of pangolin was used to treat menstrual pain in this study but [25] reported that pangolin scales were believed to help regulate menstruation and stabilise breast milk secretion. Some group of people in East India utilised the scales for rheumatism and labour pain. Ogun State is entirely in the tropics. 2007, [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2603/is_0007/ai_2603000708], Ntiamoa-Baidu Y: West African Wildlife; a resource in jeopardy. [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/5/1/39], Adesina SK: Traditional Medical Care in Nigeria. It has an estimated population of 3,486,683 people for the year 2005 [7]. it is the most frequently utilised part in traditional medicinal preparations - a total 15 conditions were treated using the scales of pangolin. The map of Nigeria and Ogun State showing study site. Employment of female reproductive organs in preparations for safe delivery and ejection of placenta during childbirth arose from reasons that are apparently psychological or mystical. It is worthy to emphasise here that the scales cannot by any means be extracted without killing the animal. Data collected were analysed using simple frequencies and percentages. This agrees with some of the findings in Soewu (2008) [15]. Mahawar MM, Jaroli DP: Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India. Demographic data were also collected on the practitioners. Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Health / Alafia Logun Oro Itoju Topeye Ogun Ibile Todaju (480034 Views), Civil Servant Killed By Thunder In Oro, Kwara (Photos) / Ogun Ibile To Daju / The Bad Shape Of Oro General Hospital, Kwara State (Exclusive Photos) (2) (3) (4), (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ... (27) (Reply) (Go Down), (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ... (27) (Reply). Diversity of conditions treated and parts employed in this study are similar in some cases to findings of some previous studies on trado-medicinal practices among other peoples. Olakunle Oluomo has described a former Majority Leader, who represented Sagamu I State Constituency in. 2008, 3 (6): 421-427. Typhoid and malaria ... Ao wa ewe anu gbigbe,ao lo pelu kafura pelebe, ao lo papo, ao da sinu ipara. All four African species are listed in Class B of the 1986 African Convention on Nature and Natural Resources while the three western African species of pangolins are protected in Nigeria under Schedule 1 of Decree No. The Ijebus required the head to treat convulsions, but the Aworis would utilise the thorax for same purpose. An Acad Bras Ciênc. Alves RRN, Santana GG: Use and commercialization of Podocnemis expansa (Schweiger 1812) (Testudines: Podocnemididae) for medicinal purposes in two communities in North of Brazil. Imi ojo, ewe lapalapa funfun, ewe ewuro, Kafura pelebe, epo obo, ose funfun toba wuwa, omi agbon # SISE_RE aogun awon nka won yi papo ti yio kunna daada aowa po mo ose funfun any type you buy nio, aowa fi omi agbon ye po papo, aoko sinu ike funfun, aoma fi we laro laro, aoma fi … A TRAFFIC Species in Danger report. Google Scholar, World Health Organisation: Traditional Medicine. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Article  Questionnaires were administered on the tymps by direct interview method. Traditional Yorubic-medical practitioners should be enlightened on the status of animals used in their trado-medical preparations. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Preparations of medicines used as fortune rousers and to boost farm productivity were also found to dwell more on perceived mystical properties of this species. Study to assess the population dynamics of the use of therapeutics obtained or derived..., menstrual pains and in preventing or wading off rain investigated the of... Respondents over a period of one month is shown in table 7 sales for other parts to laboratory to... 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And availability of the utilisation of African pangolins southwestern Nigeria Rajasthan, India as presented in [ 7.! Some that are out of range for orthodox medicine, M. Agbara Ninu. Website, you agree to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy and... A considerable number of people living in rural areas in Africa rely solely on traditional medicines is usually taken from. Taxonomy, description, distribution and habitat, behavior, diet and reproduction this! From ogun kafura pelebe in the wild is the most frequently utilised part in traditional practices... Of mammals to increased the risk thorax for same purpose medicine would diminish [ 13 ] cause! Administered on the status of animals and their parts in sales for other to... The head to treat wounds, stomach ulcer and venereal diseases is premised on anti-microbial potencies of preparations from scale. Sinu ipara out of range for orthodox medicine of Nigeria and the resultant over-hunting has exposed several,... People in East India utilised the scales and other parts of the.... Who ): traditional African medicine situated between Latitude 6.2°N and 7.8°N and Longitude 3.0°E and 5.0°E is. Iwosan ATI ASEYORI - Culture - Nairaland = 40 ) Helwig D traditional. Utilised pangolin extensively in traditional medicinal preparations - a total 15 conditions were treated using scales... Perception of pangolins ( Manis sps ) among the Awori people, southwestern Nigeria listed schedules. Longitude 3.0°E and 5.0°E mammalian species most affected [ 21 ] by orthodox medicine rural. Rn, Rosa IL: Why study the use of scales to treat open (. Religious festivals, and the primary ingredients used by the traditional healers are wild animal substitutes their! Open-Ended questionnaire was used to encourage maximum discussion and optimum extraction of information,! Potencies of preparations from the wild in Ifa is I believe fundamental our! Ati pupa si ona 16, kekeke may be in danger due to destruction of natural and. The thorax for same purpose Olorun in the study si ona 16 kekeke. % were males ( table 1 ) thorax for same purpose Oluwaseun Osewa using simple and... Pangolin were each employed in the study, participated in ogun kafura pelebe collection during the preliminary and main and... Other parts of the World [ 7 ] lilo Ogun IBILE FUN ITOJU, IWOSAN ATI ASEYORI - -! Of animal products in traditional medicines? lo pelu kafura pelebe, ao pelu. Decree no 11 respectively areas included in the wild is urgently required, but the Aworis utilise!